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Theoretical Exploration on Biological Metabolism and Substance Cycle (4)

5. Try transiting to three kingdom system theory (part 2) – metabolic realities of microorganisms, plants and animals  

People may not be difficult to accept the different understanding of in vivo and in vitro, because it is only a different understanding on something. But for the classification of the chloroplast function under autotrophic organisms, it seems that people are very difficult to accept, because the chloroplasts belong to the structure of plant body, not autotrophic organisms. But if treated the experimental result of the endosymbiotic theory as an effective confirmation that the chloroplast function should originally belong to photosynthetic bacteria, then the chloroplast function should originally be put under the head of autotrophic microorganisms. The rationality of this scientific confirmation could be shown through that the plant and animal bodies could not directly contact with the physical inorganic substances and chemical inorganic substances and the discussion of the bio-enzymes coming from microorganisms. 

Based on the above re-understanding of in vivo and in vitro, the digestion of the chyme in the animal digestive tract is carried out in vitro. The substances could not be regarded as (the ones) in vivo, but only as in vitro before they are absorbed. This is the primary difference from the traditional theory. 

According to the inorganic – organic – inorganic transformation rule, we shall first discuss the plant and animal metabolism which have an obvious opposite and untied relation. And the microorganisms that “may show both animal and plant like characteristics” will be discussed as different living things. 

5.1. Metabolism of plants and animals 

First of all, we must understand that plants belong to the autotrophs in the substance circle in biosphere, and their essential metabolic function is to phytosynthesize organic substances from inorganic ones. And human or animals are part of heterotrophs. Although there are breakdown and synthesis in animal body, their most essential metabolic function has already decided their restoration of the organic substances, and the final destination of their synthesis in vivo is still to moves towards the restoration. 

In terms of essential aspect, the plant and animal metabolism itself is a contradictory unity. Based on the essential functions of the plant and animal metabolism, their contradiction and unity are as follows: 

5.1.1. Energy metabolism of plants and animals. The plant absorption of the substances is for the phytosynthesis of organic ones and for the storage of energy, and the animal absorption of the substances is for the utilization of the substances and energy stored by plants and for the final restoration of substances and release of energy. One is for the storage of energy, and another is for the release of energy; one is for the phytosynthesis of organic substances from inorganic, and another is for the restoration of organic substances to inorganic (referring to the end result of animal body and intestinal excrements). 

5.1.2. Substance metabolism of plants and animals. The substances needed by plants are the inorganic ones in ionic state, and the substances needed by human (or animal) body are the small organic molecules. 

Since the physical substances (such as sunlight, carbon dioxide, minerals, etc.) have been excluded the start point of biological cycle of substances, then, the substances needed by plants and animals can only be picked from the chemicalized substances. These substances include: plants, animals, microorganisms and the inorganic substances in ionic state (inorganic ions) made by microorganisms. 

As a result, the substances needed by plants can only come from microorganisms and the inorganic substances in ionic state made by microorganisms, and the substances needed by animals can only come from plants and microorganisms. This has been decided by the theory and reality. 

According to the characteristics of functional substances, it is just the same as the microorganisms’ (e.g. directly bonding with and catalyzing substrates). So list them respectively in the forms of phytosynthesis, decomposition and restoration under autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms (please refer to ” Trying to Prove the Enzymes and Microorganisms in Substance Transformation with a Formula a + b = c”). 

5.2. Metabolism of microorganisms 

Microbial metabolism has been reflected very clearly by numerous experiments, textbooks and research data, which is that they would directly relate to chemical inorganic substances and chemical organic substances. This marked characteristic will be embodied concretely in the following table 2. 

5.3. Actual situations of the substance cycle and the metabolism of microorganisms, plants and animals 

Well, according to the different substances needed by microorganisms, plants and animals, as well as their different metabolic end products, we can list them to have a comparison: 

Actual situations of the substance cycle

and the metabolism of microorganisms, plants and animals

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Table 2 

Explanations:  

① Transferofenzymes and vitamins along biological chain. According to the law of conservation of matter, the synthetic enzymes, catabolic enzymes and reductases as well as vitamins (listed them in the forms of Vitamins1 and Vitamins2 respectively) produced by microorganisms must be transferred along the biological chain, or move following the material movement, which is undeniable. Then, based on the reflection of the table 2 that all the substance transformation in biosphere are the results of biochemical reactions and reality that the enzymes would not be consumed in the biochemical reactions, the enzymes in various biochemical reactions will not vanish definitely. Therefore, the disappearance of the enzymes and vitamins, etc. produced by microorganisms in their metabolism is artificial, which does not conform to the law of conservation of matter. Thus, they are specially listed out and make them to move along the substance transformation. 

In fact, enzymes and vitamins would be decomposed by microorganisms before absorbed by plants and animals, but the research and data how to be decomposed and what to be decomposed into are very lacking, so here directly listed them with their functional forms instead of their decomposed forms. However, this would not affect them to flow along with the substance circulation, and still might see them to be transmitted along the biological chain. 

The problem, to cover the enzymes and vitamins with their functional states, is that their functional states in the column of “needed energy and substances” belong to chemical organic substances in form, but in fact they belong to chemicalized organic substances before absorbed by plants and animals, so we treat their states after decomposed and before absorbed as chemicalized organic substances. 

Now that made sure that enzymes and vitamins came from microorganisms, then certainly the synthetic enzymes came from autotrophic microorganisms, and catabolic enzymes and reductases came from heterotrophic microorganisms. 

Except the synthetic enzymes, there are some reductases, etc. in animal body. Animal synthesis itself means the energy expenditure, means that a small amount of energy substances would return to original state. However, in the biological substance cycle, because the decomposition and synthesis are the sub-procedure in the restoration of substances, and they occur in the restoring process and have not arrived at the end point of the biological substance cycle, they are listed in the forms of the synthetic enzymes and a small amount of reductases. 

Animal excrements to restore. The contents in the animal column “restoration” refer to the animal excrements, corresponding to the metabolites of microorganisms, and the animal body would be restored in another way (it is just because of this path of “restored in another way” that the traditional theory could at last enable microorganisms to take part in the substance cycle in the form of “decomposition of the remains of plants and animals”). The organic substances in the animal excrements would be restored finally though some of them are decomposed firstly. 

③ Plants can absorb a small amount of small molecule organic substances. The substances absorbed by plants are not all the chemicalized inorganic substances, and also include a small amount of small molecule organic substances. If plants could not absorb them, it would not explain the problems that the enzymes and vitamins produced by soil microorganisms would be absorbed by plants, and they would be transferred along the biological chain. 

We can see from Table 2: 

① It can clearly give expression to the inorganic world and organic world. Table 2 reflected very clearly, between the chemical inorganic substances and chemicalized organic substances, there was a strict boundary line between the inorganic world and organic world, reflecting only the chemicalized inorganic substances could enter the biological cycling. 

From the levels of the inorganic and organic worlds, it could reflect the inorganic – organic – inorganic law of substance transformation. 

② It can clearly reflect the physical-chemical reactions and biochemical reactions. Meanwhile, it could also reflect the slow way that inorganic substances generated organic ones by physical-chemical reactions in ancient time, and this way is still playing a role now. If integrated with the “Diagram of biological cycle of substances”, it could roughly reflect the historical trace of plants and animals. 

③ Three categories of living things enjoyed their places, cooperated very well, and also their metabolism and substance cycle were interdependent, combined organically, moving smoothly and to benefit each other. May see from Table 2, there was an opposite and untied relation between life and substances, and also there was an opposite and untied relation between biological metabolism and substance cycle. Life depended on substances, and substances moved depending on life metabolism. 

Simultaneously, it reflected that the metabolism of three categories of living things depended on each other. In the substance cycle, their division of labor was not only clear, but also careful, and all of them could “live and work in peace”. They not only got along well, but also benefited each other, and were not only well-defined but also inextricable with the inorganic world, which put the biological metabolism and substance cycle to form a very beautiful picture. You would see them widthwise in rows and lengthwise in lines. 

View from physical and chemistry:physical inorganic substances → chemical inorganic substances → chemicalized inorganic substances → physical organic substances → chemical organic substances → chemicalized organic substances → physical organic substances → chemical inorganic substances, and finally mineral elements would become physical inorganic substances through mineralization. 

View from biological metabolism: chemical inorganic substances in nature = energy and substances needed by autotrophic microorganisms → metabolites of autotrophic microorganisms = energy and substances needed by plants → compounds of the energy and substances absorbed by plants = plant substances → chemical compositions of plant substances = energy and substances needed by heterotrophic microorganisms → metabolites of heterotrophic microorganisms = energy and substances needed by animals → compounds of the energy and substances absorbed by animals = animal substances → end products of animal metabolism = restored substances (chemical inorganic substances). 

View from biological chain: autotrophic microorganisms → plants → heterotrophic microorganisms → animals → heterotrophic microorganisms. 

④ Could reflect that all the energy and substances needed by plants and animals were processed or pretreated in vitro. All the pretreatment of whether the inorganic substances needed by plants or organic substances needed by animals were carried out in vitro. 

The result that the processing or pretreatment of all the substances needed by plants and animals confirmed from the right side that the real existence of the transitional spaces for the pretreatment of the required substances of plants and animals, and confirmed from the indirect side the scientificestimation that the functions of chloroplasts evolved from heterotrophic microorganisms. 

⑤ Microorganisms obtained nourishment directly from inorganic and organic substances, and plants and animals obtained nourishment indirectly from inorganic and organic substances. According to the actual situation reflected in Table 2, microorganisms were responsible for the transformation from chemical inorganic and organic substances to chemicalized substances, and plant and animal bodies were responsible for the synthesis of these chemicalized inorganic and organic substances. This situation can be said that “microorganisms is the existing foundation of all big living things in the biosphere”. 

Based on the actual situation of the plant and animal metabolism reflected in Table 2, we can see that all the substance transformation in the biosphere are the results of biochemical reactions, and the initiator of these reactions is just the microorganisms. The role of microorganisms can only be implemented by those catalysts of functional substances, such as enzymes, coenzymes and vitamins, which is the necessary way that microorganisms involve in the biochemical reactions. Thus it can be said that the microorganisms are the real implementers and promoters of the bio-chemical reactions. 

As for plants and animals how to regulate and control the synthesis, e.g. what , how much and how they would synthesize the substances absorbed by them, and what they would synthesize first and later, that would be a problem for genes or hormones. 

6. conclusions 

Criticalness and constructiveness are the chief features of this paper. 

To respect the truth, to take the reality and experimental results as the basis and to wall up the supposition are the principle followed in this paper. 

The unity of opposites on in vivo and in vitro, the unity of opposites on functional substances and ordinary organic substances, the unity of opposites on plants and animals as well as their needed substances (equal to the natural world), the unity of opposites on the autotrophic and heterotrophic, the unity of opposites on phytosynthesis and restoration, the unity of opposites on biological metabolism and substance cycle, the unity of opposites on macroscope and microscope , the unity of opposites on inorganic world and organic world, as well as the universal connexions among things, these are the basic thinking followed in this paper. 

How to start is very important. In the exploration, besides the new understanding of in vivo and in vitro and restoration of chloroplasts, another characteristic is to trace the generating modes of inorganic ions. By this tracing, the microorganisms behind the scene were captured. Thereby it revealed that the traditional theory had lost not only autotrophic microorganisms, but also heterotrophic microorganisms, made sure that the basic theories of modern life sciences were basically in the two kingdom system, solved the major difficulties, enabled the exploration to enter into a new stage and opened a breakthrough to explore why the substances would move along the biological chain, how they would move and what states they would become in their movement. 

Summing up the methods in this exploration, they focused on the substantial states actually absorbed by microorganisms, plants and animals (which is just the angle that the current theory circle has been neglecting) relying on the current experimental results and basic general knowledge. By the different analytical and research methods, it overcome the limitation to rely solely on the experiments (experiments first), solve the problems what relationship that the various substances in the biological cycle should be and on what they would rely to relate to plants and animals through the different understanding of in vivo and in vitro and chloroplasts. Combined with a full analysis of the classification of “functional components (6)” in the current textbooks, unified enzymes and vitamins into the functional substances and made them to have an opposite and untied relation with the ordinary organic substances. Thereby, it obtained a complete break through and created a brand new understanding of the theory. 

Review of main points

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Autotrophic microorganisms are a major biological population in the biosphere, are the very opposite of heterotrophic microorganisms, and even more are the basis of heterotrophic microorganisms. Their importance is by no means less than heterotrophic microorganisms and we have to pay serious attention to them. 

The fundamental difference between the traditional theory and experiments and realities is that the traditional theory rests on the two kingdom system in the biosphere, that is plants and animals, but the basic theory reflected by contemporary experiments and realities is actually more and more obvious three kingdom system, that is microorganism, plants and animals. 

These conclusions are not racking our brains to collect facts in order to reinforce the argument, but the theory and the various contradictions in reality make them so. They are the inevitable outcome caused by the theory and those contradictions in reality, and also the subtext implied in the research articles of many scientists for many years. They are indeed many more than we had expected at the beginning and in the process of exploring the various contradictions. 

From the above discussions, it is not difficult to find that the current theoretical studies of life sciences have remarkable achievements, but always can not break the shackles of the traditional theory, causing the theoretical research to move forward gradually in one side, while its practice in another side (for example the application of the basic theory in nutriology, medical science and the production of agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry) is still persisting in their old ways, having formed a very contradictory situation that they act wilfully. This contradiction is more and more outstanding, more and more obvious. At the same time it also shows that, at present we are still too little understanding of microorganisms (it is only a few hundred years that mankind cognized microorganisms, and the found quantity is estimated only 20% of their total), the research direction is not enough clear (such as the classification of the autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms in strategy and the research of their essential functions), the accumulation of power is not enough strong to break the shackles of the traditional theory, and we have yet to carry on a deeper rethink to the traditional theory with stronger evidence. 

Matter wants to move and microorganisms want to be liberated, which is the reflection of the realities, is the inevitable product during the combination of theory and practice, and also is the inherent requirements of the development of the basic theory of life sciences. These inherent requirements will produce strong vitality, promote the unity of theory and practice, and bring benefit to mankind. 

Through the discovery and analysis of the contradictions, we all will inevitably be shocked greatly, so that the errors in the basic theory of the life sciences based on the two kingdom system are not in piles, but everywhere, and their influence may be said an unparalleled disaster, which would affect every aspect of the whole life sciences, would affect every category of living things in the biosphere, would affect everyone of us, then would affect every aspect of our life. 

As my thinking and understanding in this paper are very young, in addition my ABC is very poor, so hope your experts give directions to me! 

In addition, since “to respect the truth, to take the reality and experimental results as the basis and to wall up the supposition” in this paper, several problems are pending for corresponding supplementary materials, such as the state change of organic substances before they are absorbed by plants, and the state change of enzymes and vitamins before they are absorbed by plants and animals, etc.. Hope to cooperate with everyone. 

First draft: Nov. 28, 2009.  Revised: Dec. 31, 2009. Finished: Mar. 17, 2010. Revised upon the opinions of experts: Apr. 06, 2010. Translation revised: Oct. 18, 2010. 

References: 

1, (China) He Sui-Yuan and Jin Yun-Yun, Environment Chemistry(December 1996),P 31/23,available at http://wenku.baidu.com/view/c1598fc24028915f804dc266.html.

2, Endosymbiotic theory, From Bio-Medicine, available at http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-definition/Endosymbiotic_theory/

3, (China) Zhou Yong-Hong, General Biology (November 2007), P2, available at http://wenku.baidu.com/view/db4d2f29bd64783e09122bea.html。

4, (America) Zinpro Corporation, available at http://www.dwyybj.com/dh_admin/ProductUpload/6-05.doc。

5, (China) Drinking water and human health, Sohu Home (31 January 2010), available at http://home.focus.cn/msgview/1713/184979934.html.

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7, (China) Six Main Nutrients, Baidupedia (04 May 2010), available at http://baike.baidu.com/view/782649.htm. 

8, (China) China Education Resource Service Platform, How to classify biosphers, available at http://xxkx.cersp.com/SYHPQ/QYJX/200704/2763.html.

9, (China) Latest Complete Collection, National Food Safety Quality Identification and Test Standard, The Web Site of bbs.foodmate.net (02 May 2007), available at http://bbs.foodmate.net/viewthread.php?tid=115968&extra=&page=1.

10, (Taiwan, China) National Chu Tung Senior High Scholl, Classification of Living Things, Classification system of living things, available at http://www.ctsh.hcc.edu.tw/~tmayhan/01/2-2.doc.

11, (China) Duan Xiu-Bin, Re-anylisis of biological Enzymes Originating from Microorganisms, Unpublished.

12, (China) biological cycle of substances, From Baidupedia (15 January 2008), available at http://baike.baidu.com/view/1364250.htm?fr=ala0_1.

13, (China) Duan Xiu-Bin, Try to Prove Enzymes and Microorganisms in the Substance Cycle, Unpublished.

 

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Originally posted 2004-05-13 01:12:56.

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